What is the Internet?
Internet is a collection of a large number of independent computer networks interconnected using standard protocol TCP/TP(Transfer Control Protocol /Internet Protocol) to serves billions of users. Internet is a network of networks consisting of thousands of private, public, business, academic and government networks. The Internet is linked to our home area by a broad array of wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet is a superhighway of information. The Internet's primary focus is to facilitate the sharing of information.
Before going to learn internet services lets learn some facts about the internet that may blow your mind.
1) Father of the Internet: Vinton Gray Cerf: The co-designer of the TCP/IP protocol suites and the architecture of the Internet.
2) The inventor of the Internet: Robert Elliot Kahn and Vinton Gray Cerf
3) The Internet is not in control by anyone.
4) There are 4.39 billion internet users in 2019 AD which is increased to 366 million versus January 2018.
5) There are 3.48 billion social media users in 2019, with the worldwide total growing by 288 million versus 2018.
6) Internet uses the standard Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
7) Every computer on the internet is identified by a unique IP address.
Services of Internet /Internet Services
Some of the most popular internet services are :
1) Communication Services
2) Information Retrieval Services
3) World Wide Web Services
4) Web Services
Let's explain each of them in brief.
Communication is one of the most popular services of the internet. We are using internet-based communication services every day to contact family and friends. It is also known as Internet Telephony. Some of the internet communication services are Instant Messaging, Internet Telephony, and VOIP, Email, IRC, Videoconferencing, etc. Let's look at them one by one.
a) Instant Messaging
Instant Messaging (IM) is a type of online chat which offers text communication over the internet in real-time. Because of its real-time nature, it is continuously becoming one of the fastest-growing forms of internet communication services. There are many instant messengers which are providing instant messaging. Some of them are Facebook, Whatsapp, Skype, hangout,qq, wechat, etc. Among those, Whatsapp has the highest user actively engaging (report gathered from stattube youtube channel).
Email stands for Electronic Mail. It is a paperless method of sending messages(text, files or images) from one person to another or many people at the same time using the internet. In 1996, there was more e-mail than postal mail being sent.
Some of the important features of email are :
i) Instant Communications.
ii) One to One or One to many communications
iii) Free and easily accessible, only required is internet connections.
Some of the most popular email providers are Gmail, Microsoft Outlook, AOL mail, Zoho mail, fast mail, hush mail. mail.com, MSN, Yahoo mail, etc.
c) Internet Telephony and VoIP
In traditional telephony, we sents phone calls, fax, voicemail over landlines, but in Internet Telephony that stuff are done using the internet.IN internet telephony our voice which is in analog voice gets converted into digital voice (binary form) which gets the transfer over the internet as IP packets from one phone to another. So, here voice packets are transferred over the network. Internet Telephony is also called as IP Telephony (IPT).
VoIP is a subset of IP Telephony. It is just a technology used by Internet Telephony for digitizing the analog signal.
Video Conferencing is Internet Services where two or more people located in separate geographical locations do live audio-video communication. For proper functioning of the Video Conference, it may require a high bandwidth of the internet at the sender and receiver sides.
The basic requirement for performing good Video Conferencing:
i)Good Internet Connection at the sender and receiver sides.
ii)Webcams on both sides(sender and receiver).
iii)Computer screen, TV, projector for displaying video.
iv)Good video conferencing software like Webex Meetings, ClickMeeting, Zoom, BlueJeans, Join me, Zoho, etc.
2) Information retrieval services:
One reason why a computer network such as the Internet has been created was, to allow users to access remote computers and transfer files from one machine to another. This internet service includes FTP, FTPS, SFTP(Simple File Transfer Protocol), Telnet, SSH File Transfer Protocol, Trivial File Transfer Protocol, etc.
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. It is an internet utility software which is used for uploading and downloading files.FTP enables access to remote computer folders and allows files and folders to be transferred between different computers.FTP consists of a client-server system architecture utilizing different control and commands between client and server.
If you want to upload a file from your computer to a remote server you need an FTP client. There are numerous FTP clients available. Some of the popular FTP client software are FileZilla,WinSCP,Cyberduck,CuteFTP,Transmit , FireFTP, SmartFTP etc.
Objectives of FTP :
i) It promotes the sharing of computer files, folder(directories) and software.
ii) It helps to transfer data reliably and efficiently.
iii) It is Faster than other protocols like HTTP or POP so it is a preferred method of exchanging files. It can easily transfer large files.
SFTP stands for SSH File Transfer Protocol. Sometimes it is called Secure File Transfer Protocol. It is more secure than FTP. It supports the complete SSH protocol protection and authentication feature, including the SSH key. Example: Accessing your email uses SFTP because here we need our username and password for accessing information from the server.
WinSCP is the best software for SFTP.
c)Telnet (Remote Computing)
Telnet stands for Telecommunication Network. Telnet allows the client to log in to the remote server for accessing remote resources. It uses TCP port 23. It is not much secure. We use Putty software for getting remote access to the server. In windows OS, when you type telnet remote_ip in run(Win + R) windows, then enter username and password for remote access then you will be successfully connected to the remote server.
FTP is used for file transfer to/from a remote server but Telnet is used for accessing remote resources. Configuration of remote servers can be done from the client-side.
SSH stands for Secure Shell. Secure than Telnet.Same work as Telnet.SSH sends all the data in an encrypted format. It uses a secure channel for transferring data and command over the network.SSH uses High bandwidth.SSH can be considered as a replacement for telnet.
3) WWW (World Wide Web)
WWW is one of the main services of the internet. Most of us think that the Internet and WWW are the same but actually not. Internet is Infrastructure and Web is just a service provided on the Internet. Internet is a network of networks and Web is just information present in the network.
The inventor of Web: Tim Berners Lee and Robert Cailliau.
4) Web Services
There are lots of applications built in various programming languages. Some built using .net, some in Java, some in python, angular, node js. There may need some ways of communication with each other. And web services solve this problem. Web services provide a common platform that allows multiple applications to communicate with each other whatever programming languages are used for making applications. So it acts as a standard medium of a passing message (data) between the client application( made by using android,vue, angular, react or any frontend language in general) and a server application(java,.net, python, etc in general) in World Wide web.
In our traditional web application when the client requests for information to server then in response server sends pages along with data. But in web services, data are sent back from the server to a client in JSON or XML format. This format can then be used by any client application like angular, android,vue, react, etc. This format is programming languages independent. There are two main types of web services:
i)SOAP web services (It uses XML form of data)
ii)RESTful web services. (It can use HTTP,JSON,URL , XML form of data)
Some other services of the internet include:
5) Directory Services ( like DNS, LDAP )
Directory services map network resources names to network addresses and create a network name structure. Let's look at network directory services like DNS and LDAP.
DNS (Domain Name System)
The task of the DNS is to translate human-readable domain names like ourtechroom.com into IP addresses(something like 192.168.10.12) so that the web browser can load the requested resources from the server. If there is no DNS then you have to remember the IP and have to hit accessing intended sites with IP instead of a domain name like ourtechroom.com.
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
It is a lightweight client-server directory protocol for accessing directory services. If your data do not change frequently then you can store your data in LDAP Services and you can access it frequently as LDAP provides a ' write-once-read-multiple-times' services, whereas in SQL database you can have high read and writes. So, we can say LDAP is non-transactional.
6) Automatic Network Address Configuration
Giving a unique IP address to all the systems in a network is done by Automatic Network Address Configuration devices like DHCP(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)Server.DHCP server's main works are to make sure that no two systems got the same IP address.
Our home router is already pre-configured with the DHCP server and we should not have to worries much about assigning dynamic IP to the computer. Suppose a computer connects to a network then this computer will request for an IP address to router, then in router, we have DHCP server, then what DHCP Server does is it looks in a pool of available IP addresses, if found then send back to the computer and finally your computer will have IP which is dynamic in nature.
7) Network Administration ( SNMP)
Checking each and every device in a network is tedious so for this we have SNMP, which stands for Simple Network Management Protocol. It is mainly used for network monitoring, network failure identification among various devices in a network.
8) Usenet News
More coming soon.