Google LLC is one of the world's leading multinational technology companies, specializing in search engines, online advertising, software development, cloud computing, and hardware manufacturing. Google, along with Amazon, Apple, and Microsoft, is one of the top four technology companies. In 1998, two PhD students, Larry Page and Sergey Brin founded Google at Stanford University in California. Let's take a look at the technology stack that Google used to build its system and product.
The Google technology stack has been divided into the following groups:
Let's go into each of them in deep.
1 Developer Stack
Developers in google use the following technologies and tools.
Python is a high-level object-oriented programming language with dynamic typing. It has extensive cross-platform support and large standard libraries. It is used in machine learning, deep learning, IoT, and other fields related to artificial intelligence. Python's keyword is the English word, which makes the code very readable.
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Java is a high-level, static object-oriented programming language. Object-oriented, platform-independent, simple, secure, robust, multithreaded (can perform multiple tasks concurrently), and high performance are some of Java's key features (with the use of the JTE compiler).
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Dart is a programming language designed for the client-side development of cross-platform applications. It is used in the development of mobile, desktop, server, and web applications. Data is a class-based, object-oriented, garbage-collected language having C-like syntax.
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Go is an open-source programming language that makes simple, reliable, and efficient software easy to build. Some important features of go language are concurrency(can handle millions of platform users), simplicity, and consistency, object-oriented, pointer support, static typed,, compiled language, cross-platform, etc.
It is a design language that uses a grid-based layout system, responsive animations, and transition and depth effects.
C and C++
C++ is a popular general-purpose programming language. It can be used for the development of operating systems, browsers, games, etc.
Preact is one of the fastest virtual DOM libraries, and it's only 3KB in size. It is much faster and lighter than any other framework on the market, including React.
Android SDK is a set of API libraries and development tools for creating, testing, and debugging Android apps.
LevelDB is an open-source on-disk key-value store created by Google Fellows. It serves as the backend database for Google Chrome's IndexedDB.
2 DevOps and IT Stack
DevOps is a set of practices in which software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops) are combined. It increases the ability of an organization to deliver speedier applications and services. This speed allows organizations to serve their clients better and compete more effectively in the market. Some DevOps and IT Stack used in google are :
Apache Tomcat software offers the Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages (JSP), Java Expression Language, and Java WebSocket technologies. Tomcat provides an environment for "pure Java" HTTP Web servers that can run Java code.
Kubernetes project focuses on building a robust platform for running thousands of containers in a production-ready environment. It is an open-source platform designed by Google.
Jenkins is one of the leading open source Continuous Integration(CI) tools used to build and test projects continuously making it easier to integrate modifications and changes to the system.
Android Studio is the official Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for Android app development. It is designed specifically for Android to accelerate development and assist you in creating high-quality apps for every Android device.
Bazel is a free software tool for automating software development and testing. Google uses Blaze internally and has released a portion of the Blaze tool as open-source as Bazel.
SeeSaw is a Go-based load-balancing platform based on Linux Virtual Servers. Seesaw can handle traffic for unicast and anycast virtual IP addresses, load balances with NAT and DSR, and performs backend health checks. Seesaw is used by Google to automate configuration change deployment.
EarlGrey is a native iOS UI automation test framework developed by Google.
Following are a few business tools used by Google.
Gmail is a free web-based email service offered by Google. You can send and receive emails, block spam, snooze emails, make to-do lists, schedule appointments, and much more.
Google Workspace (formerly G Suite) is a secure collaboration and productivity app suite for businesses that includes professional email, shared calendars, online document editing and storage, video meetings, Hangouts, Google+, Forms, Sheets, Docs, Drive, Keep, and many more.
It is a set of business-oriented web applications developed by Google.
Google Meet is a free enterprise-level video conferencing tool that allows dozens of people to participate in the same virtual meeting, share video, control meeting hosts, message participants, join meetings from Gmail, create polls, and much more.
Google Hangouts is a Google-developed cross-platform instant messaging service.
Some of the few utilities used by google are:
Google Analytics is a web analytics service that offers basic analytical tools and statistics for search engine optimization (SEO) and marketing.
App Annie is an analytics platform which provides tools for app analytics data.
Maps.google.com is a web-based mapping service provided by Google. Aerial and satellite imagery, street maps, 360° interactive panoramic views of streets, real-time traffic conditions, and route planning for travel by foot, vehicle, bike, air (in beta), and public transportation are all available in Google Maps