Describing Why C and C++ are not used in Web Application Development are described within 5 minutes with appropriate reason in this article? - C and C++ are considered to be a wall of the programming. These are your first programming language taught when you get enrolled in computer science, where you use Turbo C++( in general ) with a black screen and writing small commands and implement different data structures and algorithms. So generally engineers and IT student takes it as a language for academic degrees.
IT Students who are trained with C and C++ in universities are not able to meet the need of the general IT market and not able to solve real-life problems with the knowledge of C and C++ that you have learned in your universities. So, I personally suggest please do not learn C and C++ thinking for building web applications. There are lots of other languages that do the task in an easy way. Learn important concepts and data structure in general from C and C++.
Before moving forward lets briefly discussed these two programming languages.
C Programming Language:
C is a Procedural Programming Language developed by Dennis Ritchie in around 1969 AD. It is a function-driven language where the function is considered as a building block. And focus on method instead of data. Due to a lack of OOP, they do not support polymorphism, inheritance, and encapsulation.
C++ is both procedural and object-oriented programming paradigms developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979. It is known to object driven language where more focus is given to data and objects. They support polymorphism, inheritance, and encapsulation.C++ seems to be more structured and secure than C due to the presence of various level of modifiers or access code to the different parts of the code.
Though they are different but share similarities.
Similarities between C and C++ language
Both are general purpose, low-level programming language closer to hardware. Both have to manually manage memory for the program. They have no garbage collectors like another high-level language.
It is better to learn C then C++ then you can easily adapt to other languages.But this does not mean that you can learn other high-level languages like python, java, C# at first. Only things this learning C and C++ makes you clear in procedural and Object-Oriented Concepts.
A good source for learning C and C++: cprogramming.com
C and C++ in Web and Desktop Development
A few years ago, web-based technologies and services were not popular at this time, many of the CGI Application and webserver code was written in C and C++ (Microsoft's ISAPI or ATLServer frameworks)(source), but cloud computing and web-based technology have emerged and changed drastically and C++ was not able to cope the changes and scripting language and various backend language like PHP, Java, C#, Python, etc where developed in web industry and this language makes easier for a developer to work with it. So, C and C++ went behind in the web development industry.
Why C and C++ are not used much used in Web Development?
1) Lack of Industrial Standard Rapid Web Application Development Framework
C and C++ language doesn't have a mature and stable rapid web application development Framework like another high-level language framework.
|High-Level Language||Web Framework|
|Python||Django Framework, Flask Framework|
|Php||Laravel Framework, Codeignitor Framework|
Popular C++ web application framework are : TreeFrog, CppCMS .These are not mature enough to fulfill current needs.
|TreeFrog||It is a high-performance full-stack C++ framework for developing Web Application supporting Http and Web Socket Protocol. It is written in C++/Qt.
The framework is just a collection of libraries. And TreeFrog still does not have rich libraries that other rapid web framework does.
|CppCMS||It is a high-performance Web Application Framework mainly focuses on performance demanding web application.It supports FastCGI,SCGI,Http.(source)|
It is also hard to write, debug, and maintain business logic with C++.
2)Low-Level Programming and Compilation Dependent Language
C/C++ has compiled language which converts code directly into machine-dependent binary code. But in case of Java/C#, it gets compiled to an intermediate code called bytecode(in Java), MSIL(in C#), these are machine-independent code which makes them runnable in any environment on any OS. Due to directly converted into machine-dependent code, C and C++ are not portable.
So, code written in Windows may not work on Linux and vice versa because every machine is different and every binary compiled code is specific to hardware and OS.
Only one solution gets the source code written in C/C++ and compiled it in a specific platform. If windows, then compiled code in a windows environment and if Linux then compiled in Linux environment. and soon. Otherwise, you can use the Virtual Machine concept, but these all are tedious work.
3)No much plugin support and less library support
C++ programmers usually do not have rich library support as another language has. So, if C++ programmers want to do the new things then they may not get the library to play with them. So, the C++ programmer forcefully has to build themselves which is very tedious and difficult.
Some popular C++ library are :
|POCO C++ Library||User for networking:encryption ,Http|
|sockpp||Simple and Modern C++ socket library.|
|Httpp||Production-ready HTTP server.|
|Silicon C++ 14 Web Framework||Robust and fast WEB API|
The lack of standard tools and libraries is one of the key reasons for C++ is not widely used to build a web applications.
Comparatively syntax of C and C++ is difficult as compared to another high-level language. A high-level language is constantly adding new features and syntax for doing any work fast and in optimizing ways but C++ and C syntax are not added as others.
4) Playing with Pointers:
The developer has to carefully play with a pointer for memory allocation and deallocation which is a difficult task.
5)Memory Allocation and Garbage Collection
You don't have much to worry about garbage collection with C #, Java, Python. There are automatic garbage collection facilities. But in C++ we have to carefully allocate and deallocate memory for objects.
Improperly allocating and deallocating memory may cause unexpected behaviors to an application and server.
5)New Technology Adoption
In this advanced cloud computing era, lots of new web technology and concept are developing, and C++ is still focusing only on system-level programming.
6) No backed support by large companies
Like C# is supported and promoted by Microsoft, Java by oracle. These are there own intellectual property and heavily patented. But C is not owned by companies and are not supported by any companies directly.
If you host webservice build in C++, then if you host in the server, and if any problem due to bad static and dynamic memory allocation server may be crashed and OS will close all sockets.
8)Web Debugging Supporting IDE
Most of the C++ IDE does not have Web Debugging.
9) Hosting is expensive(For cloud-based hosting):
10) Not hosting provider available for C++
11) Difficult to Learn
C++ and C are difficult to learn and frustrate the learner as they could not develop anything from the beginning whereas, in python, java, u can do that in less time.
People who want to build web application does not like to learn all complicated stuff present in C++ even for building simple real-life application. But they sooner or later may become frustrated and change the language.
12) JSON support
Data in web applications are mainly transferred in the form of JSON. And JSON in C++ is painful.
13)Large Development time and time to market
Making web applications or any software with C++ takes time because of the absence of packages and libraries. So, it may take a relatively longer time for a developer to build it.
14) Less Developer
It is difficult to get a developer who can code in C++.
15)High Development Cost
As there are fewer developers so obviously they charge more for building applications and also server cost is more.
16) Lack of Learning Source
There are fewer forums and feeds related to the C and C++ web applications. If there are then also they are not well managed and noobie and average developer find difficult learning from them.
17)Difficult to fix the bug.
C++ is an unsafe language when code has to be updated constantly and if problems occur then it is difficult to debug and fix it. And if one develops an application and if left the company and if another came then it will be difficult to understand that code and manage if especially in case of bug fixing.