Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational tech company who is the leading developer of personal computer software system presents till date, founded by Bill Gates and Paul G.Allen on April 4, 1975 AD. Its headquarters is in Redmond, Washington.
Evolution of Windows Operating System
1 ) MS-DOS ( 1981 )
MS-DOS was a non-graphical, command-line operating system originally developed by Microsoft for IBM-compatible personal computer. Actually, Microsoft has purchased QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System ) from Seattle Computer Products, renamed it as MS-DOS 1.0 and offered it to IBM as their new personal computer. From 1981 to 1997, a different version of MS-DOS was developed and on each update, some new feature was integrated to meet the demands of its users and professional programmers alike. Some of the version of MS-DOS are as follows: MS-DOS 1.0, MS-DOS 1.11, MS-DOS 1.14, MS-DOS 1.25, MS-DOS 2.0, MS-DOS 3.0, MS-DOS 4.0 and many more.
2) Windows 1.0 (1985)
Windows 1.0 was the first graphical OS of Microsoft, which was released on November 20, 1985. It was a 16- bit multi-tasking shell which runs on the top of existing MS-DOS installation, so we can say this OS is not standalone Operating System. Some of popular Windows Application at that time are Windows Paint, Windows Write, Notepad, Card File, Calculator, Clock. Microsoft provides longest supported out of all versions of Windows to Windows 1.0 for 16 years, till December 31, 2001. This version was later succeeded by Windows 2.x
3) Windows 2.0 ( 1987 )
Windows 2.0 is 16-bit GUI-based OS released on December 9, 1987. Windows 2.0 allowed users to control screen layout and application windows to overlap over one another( in Windows 1.0 only tiled windows is supported). It used icons to represent programs and files. I had several improvements in the user interface and memory management then precedor one. Windows 2.0 supported the VGA display system, which allowed you to use 16 colours at 640x480 resolution. It also introduced more sophisticated keyboard-shortcuts like Alt+Esc and the terminology of "Minimize" and "Maximize".It is the last version of windows that doesn't require a hard disk.
Some application in windows 2.0 are: Calculator(calc.exe) , Calendar (calendar.exe) , Clipboard( clipbrd.exe), Clock (clock.exe) ,a computer game of reversi, Spooler, terminal,write, program information file editor (pifedit.exe) , control panel (control.exe), Raster graphic editor (paint.exe).
Succeeded by: Windows 2.1x (1998)
Windows 2.1x (1998)
Windows 2.1x supported the Windows/286 processor, but to keep updated over time, Windows 2.1x developed windows/386 processor to support new 386 processor. Note: Windows/386 could run multiple DOS application simultaneously in the extended memory that Windows/286 can't do. Windows/386 is much more advanced. It introduced a protected mode kernel(ie .It allows system software to use features such as virtual memory, paging and safe multi-tasking designed to increase an operating system's control over application software), above which the GUI and applications run as a virtual 8086 mode task. It allows several MS-DOS programs to run in parallel in "virtual 8086" CPU mode, rather than always suspending background applications.
Windows 3.0 is also a graphical version of windows and considered as a third major released version at that time. It was released on May 22, 1990. In the commercial point of view, this os is the first success for Microsoft. Critical Windows operation are now re-written in Assembly which makes this OS even faster and lighter than the previous OS. This OS also has introduced two main features, they are VGA and virtual memory system which adds flexibility in the system.
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